The Occurrence of Paraffin and Other Petroleum Waxes in the Marine Environment: A Review of the Current Legislative Framework and Shipping Operational Practices

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dc.contributor.author Suaria, Giuseppe
dc.contributor.author Aliani, Stefano
dc.contributor.author Merlino, Silvia
dc.contributor.author Abbate, Marinella
dc.date.accessioned 2019-07-24T09:50:42Z
dc.date.available 2019-07-24T09:50:42Z
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11201/149705
dc.description.abstract [eng] Among the various materials that make up marine debris, lumps of petroleum waxes such as paraffin and microcrystalline wax, are regularly found on beaches worldwide, although not included in the current definition of marine litter. Ingestion by marine organisms is occasionally documented in the scientific literature and mass beaching events are frequently reported along the European coasts, with obvious detrimental consequences to the local communities that have to manage the clean-up and disposal of this substance. According to Annex II of the MARPOL regulation, petroleum waxes are classified as 'high viscosity, solidifying, and persistent floating products,' whose discharge at sea of tank-washing residues is strictly regulated, but currently permitted within certain limits. Starting from the description of a large stranding event occurred along the Italian coasts in 2017, we review the existing knowledge and regulatory framework and urge the relevant authorities to address this issue, showing that wax pollution is creating evident damages to the European coastal municipalities. Pending further investigations on the potential hazard that this kind of pollution is posing to marine ecosystems, we suggest a careful and more stringent revision of the policies regulating discharges of these products at sea.
dc.format application/pdf
dc.relation.isformatof Reproducció del document publicat a: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2018.00094
dc.relation.ispartof Frontiers in Marine Science, 2018, vol. 5, num. 94, p. 1-10
dc.rights cc-by (c) Suaria, Giuseppe et al., 2018
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/es
dc.subject.classification 574 - Ecologia general i biodiversitat
dc.subject.other 574 - General ecology and biodiversity Biocoenology. Hydrobiology. Biogeography
dc.title The Occurrence of Paraffin and Other Petroleum Waxes in the Marine Environment: A Review of the Current Legislative Framework and Shipping Operational Practices
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
dc.date.updated 2019-07-24T09:50:42Z
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2018.00094


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cc-by (c) Suaria, Giuseppe et al., 2018 Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as cc-by (c) Suaria, Giuseppe et al., 2018