A flow-based platform hyphenated to on-line liquid chromatography for automatic leaching tests of chemical additives from microplastics into seawater.

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dc.contributor.author Fikarová, Katerina
dc.contributor.author Cocovi-Solberg, David J.
dc.contributor.author Rosende, Maria
dc.contributor.author Horstkotte, Burkhard
dc.contributor.author Sklenářová, Hana
dc.contributor.author Miró, Manuel
dc.date.accessioned 2019-09-10T07:38:21Z
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11201/149825
dc.description.abstract An automatic flow-based system as a front end to liquid chromatography (LC) for on-line dynamic leaching of microplastic materials (polyethylene of medium density and poly(vinyl chloride)) with incurred phthalates and bisphenol A is herein presented. The microplastic particles were packed in a metal column holder, through which seawater was pumped continuously by resorting to advanced flow methodology. Each milliliter of the leachable (bioaccessible) fraction of chemical additives was preconcentrated on-line using a 10 mm-long octadecyl monolithic silica column placed in the sampling loop of the injection valve of a HPLC system that served concomitantly for analyte uptake and removal of the seawater matrix. After loading of the leachate fraction, the LC valve was switched to the inject position and the analytes were eluted and separated by a monolithic column (Onyx C18HD 100 × 4.6 mm) using an optimized acetonitrile/water gradient with UV detection at 240 nm. The automatic flow method including dynamic flow-through extraction, on-line sorptive preconcentration, and matrix clean-up was synchronized with the HPLC separation, which lasted ca. 9 min. The only two currently available multi-component certified reference materials (CRM) of microplastics (CRM-PE002 and CRM-PVC001) were used for method development and validation. Out of the eight regulated phthalates contained in the two CRMs, only the 2 most polar species, namely, dimethyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate as well as bisphenol A, were leached significantly by the seawater in less than 2 h, with bioaccessibility percentages of 51-100%. The leaching profiles were monitored and modeled with a first-order kinetic equation so as to determine the rate constants for desorption in a risk assessment scenario. Intermediate precision values of bioaccessibility data for three batches of CRMs were for the suite of targeted compounds ≤22%. This work for the first time reports a fully automatic flow method with infinite sink capacity (i.e., using a surplus of extracting solution) for the target species able to mimic the leaching of additives from plastic debris across the water body in marine settings under worst-case extraction conditions.
dc.format application/pdf
dc.relation.isformatof Versió postprint del document publicat a: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2019.06.041
dc.relation.ispartof Journal of Chromatography A, 2019, vol. 1602, p. 160-169
dc.subject.classification 53 - Física
dc.subject.classification 543 - Química analítica
dc.subject.other 53 - Physics
dc.subject.other 543 - Analytical chemistry
dc.title A flow-based platform hyphenated to on-line liquid chromatography for automatic leaching tests of chemical additives from microplastics into seawater.
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion
dc.date.updated 2019-09-10T07:38:21Z
dc.date.embargoEndDate info:eu-repo/date/embargoEnd/2021-09-27
dc.embargo 2021-09-27
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/embargoedAccess
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2019.06.041

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